AA Coffee Board of Kenya grading system: Screen size 17/18. Mesh in mm. 6.75-7.14mm beans.
Altura (Sp. "Heights") Mexican coffee of the 2nd grade. High Grown (HG), 100-1,600 meters above sea level.
Antigua he "Gran Cru" coffee district of Guatemala. Located in the Mountainous South Central-Pacific part of the country. It is dominated by three volcanoes; Agua, Acatenango and Fuego. Antigua City, the old Spanish colonial capital there, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1773.
Blue Mountain The "Gran Cru" coffee district of Jamaica. Coffee grown in the Blue Mountain Area as described in Jamaica's Coffee Industry Regulation Act of 1953 as amended, and milled at a coffee works specified and licensed by Jamaica Coffee Industry Board. The original licensed "works" Moy Hall, Silver Hill, Mavis Bank, Langley, Wallenford have been supplemented with the additional certification of Old Tavern, and RSW.
Boquete Panamas renowned coffee district, located in Chiriqui Province in the Pacific north near the border of Costa Rica.
Cerrado The newest cultivation area for high grade Brazil coffee, developed in the years following the great Black Frost of 1975 on the high savannah in the west of Minais Gerais State. Today, Brazil's best coffee. With continued application of high standards this region's coffee may emerge as a "Gran Cru" in coming years.
Chicory (Chichorium intybus) Blue flowering plant cultivated for its salad leaves and its root which when roasted and ground is used blended with or instead of coffee. It is popular in New Orleans, where it often appears at table blended with unfortunately low grades of coffee.
Davids, Ken (Kenneth) Head of the Cupping Board of Coffee Review. An acknowledged industry expert and author of several books and many articles on coffee.
EP (see European Preparation)
Estate Coffee Produce of a specific farm, rather than from a co-operative of farmers, or the trademark name of an exporter, importer, or roaster. Because availability of one particular farmer's produce may be limited, coffees marked as "Estate" may change throughout the year. Check with us as to the specific Estate that is represented by the designation.
European Preparation (EP) Better preparation for origin export to France Spain & Italy where sellers traditionally received higher prices than from US roasters, and where buyers are more particular as to the grades and finish they will accept in arriving lots.
Excelso A Colombian grade including both flat bean and peaberry types in a naturally occurring mix.
Fair Trade® Trademark of TransFair USA, licensor of the Fair Trade® mark for agricultural products in the United States.
Fancy Coffee of above average specialty quality. In Hawaii, USA Fancy Grade Kona is Type I Beans (flat bean) - Size 18 or Type II Beans (peaberry) - Size 12 with 16 or less imperfections per sample.
Fancy Mark The trademark imprint, often appearing on the original burlap sacks, of a cooperative, exporter, or importer indicating to the buyer coffee of extraordinary value.
GR #1 Dark III A rich darker roast. Oil on the bean surface. Dark brown color.
Government Estate The general designation for the top grade of Indonesia Arabica production. Indonesia: 11 defects per 300 gram sample. There are no bean size-specifications for Indonesian coffee produce.
HG Identifies beans from one of the four (4) Indonesian government owned estates on Java: Blawan, Jampit (alt. Djampit), Kayumas, and Pancur. These plantations produce washed coffees on the Caribbean and Central American process model.
Highland Indicating high grown, or mountain grown coffee.
Italian Dark IV The darkest Gillies Roast. Full oil on bean surface. Dark brown color. A Southern Italian style coffee.
JP (Japanese Preparation) Best preparation for Indonesian origin export to Japan where buyers are most particular as to the grade and finish they will accept in arriving lots. Better finishing than European preparation.
Java (Indon. "Djawa") Indonesian Island SE of Sumatra, and S of Borneo, between the Java Sea and The Indian Ocean. Approximately 661 miles long by 124 miles wide at its widest point. Also coffee of Java origin, introduced in the mid 17th Century by the Dutch. Chronologically, Java is the second great coffee of commerce after Yemen Arabian Mocha. The name "Java" is synonymous for coffee throughout the world.
Kona The "Gran Cru" coffee district of the United States. Also, the largest Island of the Hawaiian Island group that is the State of Hawaii, USA. The Name of coffee grown only in a designated area on the Kona Coast of the Island of Hawaii. Origin and grade is certified by Hawaii State Department of Agriculture. Roast coffee may be certified by the Kona Coffee Council.
Lintong The "Gran Cru" coffee district of Indonesia (Sumatra). A mountainous region (Lintongnihuta) forming a crescent south of Lake Toba in Northwest Sumatra within the larger well respected Mandheling region.
Maragogipe (Coffea arabica L. var. maragogipe) a variety of Arabica coffee originally discovered in Brazil and noted in 1884 as found growing near the town of Maragogipe, Bahia. Over the next 40-years cultivated in other origins including India, Ceylon, Java, and Australia and throughout the Americas including Jamaica. It takes the taste characteristics of the other coffees cultivated in the host country. It is recognized by its very large bean (long with a narrow waist). Once a favorite of Royalty, it was said to be favored by the German Kaiser among others.
Maui Coffee Growing island in South Central part of Hawaii State Island group. Second largest Hawaiian Island, after Hawaii Island.
MBCF Mavis Bank Central Factory; Jamaica Coffee Industry Board licensed source and processing mill for genuine Blue Mountain Coffee.
Methylene Chloride (MC) Synthetic solvent (chlorinated methane) used in decaffeinating coffee. MC is on the USFDA G.R.A.S. (Generally Regarded As Safe) List of food ingredients. Ger. Dichloromethane (DCM).
Mocha The "Gran Cru" coffee of Yemen; the world's oldest cultivated coffee. Also, the Red Sea port of Al-Mukha, the original 17th Century point of origin for coffee of commerce. The trade moved to Aden, at the tip of the Arabian Peninsula, with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. While bearing the name of the old port, the coffee itself comes from small farms producing exquisite tasting beans on the fertile spring fed terraces dug into mountainsides in the interior. Yemen Mocha is, by its nature, organically cultivated. It does not have official stature as "Organic". The name "Mocha" is synonymous for coffee throughout the world.
NOP National Organic Program administered by United States Department of Agriculture.
Organic Certified organically grown at origin, and Certified organically manufactured in the USA.
Peaberry (Sp. Caracolillo, Caracoli, Caracol) Mutant bean often found in fruit at the tips of young branches. A single "pea" shaped bean forms in the fruit rather than the usual two "flat" beans nestling face-to-face. Found in all coffee it is sometimes separated and sold as a distinct grade.
Plantation AA The highest grade of Arabica coffee of Papua New Guinea. Very rare.
SHB Strictly Hard Bean. The highest grade of Guatemala, and Costa Rica coffees. The higher the coffee grows the denser or "harder" and more desirable the bean as harder beans are believed to produce a more concentrated better tasting coffee essence. Costa Rica (Pacific Coast) top grade 1,00-1,650 meters above sea level.. Guatemala; Top grade 1,600-1,700 meters above sea level
SMBC Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, Washington DC. licensor of the "Bird Friendly" shade grown coffee mark.
Sparkling Water™ Gillies Coffee Co. trademark for CO2 natural type decaffeinated coffee processed by Hermsen, Bremen Germany.
Sigri Mark of award winning Sigri Plantation, located in the Wahgi Valley in the Western Highland province of Papua New Guinea. Established in the post WW II era, it has earned a reputation for producing the finest Arabica coffee in the country. W. R. Carpenter & Co Estates, Mount Hagan Papua New Guinea.
Sulawesi (Celebes) Indonesian Island in Maylay Archepeligo E. of Borneo, and about 375 miles NE of Java across the Java Sea. "Celebes" is the island's old Dutch colonial name. Also the name of coffee from Sulawesi Island.
Sumatra Indonesian Island S. of Malay Peninsula. Across the Sunda Passage NW of Java Island. Lake Toba, in the Northwest is the only large lake. Also the name of coffee from Sumatra Island; considered Indonesia's best origin.
Supremo The top Colombian grade. Minimum bean size #17 : will sit on a 6.75mm screen mesh. Supremo is also available in #17/18, and full #18-the fanciest production bean size. Supremo is flat bean only. No peaberry.
Swiss Water®: The original patented pure water decaffeinating process. Sole processor: Swiss Water Decaffeinated Coffee Co. Inc. Burnaby BC Canada.
Tarrazu The "Gran Cru" coffee district of South Costa Rica's Pacific watershed. Coffee cultivated at 1,200-1,700 meters above sea level.
TP Triple Picked. Sorted three times to remove undeveloped, off-color, damaged or broken beans. A designation above and beyond the official classification scale for Indonesia-Sumatra coffee preparation.
Type Donald Special fancy grade decaffeinated coffee preparation named for Gillies' Coffeeman, Donald Schoenholt by decaffeinator Hermsen, Bremen Germany.
Vienna Dark II. A rich dark roast. First oil only on the bean surface. Brown color. Also considered a Northern Italian style coffee.
Vintage Coffee not of the new crop often having a softer, less acidy cup quality and fuller body than when young.
Yirgacheffe The great washed "Cru" coffee District, and market town of Ethiopia's South Central Sidamo region north of the border with Kenya. Also available as a Natural, unwashed, coffee
No 1. The top grade of Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee - 17/18 Screen. No.2. grade (green coffee) 16-17 Screen, No. 3 grade (green coffee) 15-16-17 Screen and Peaberry are also exported raw. Triage grade (roasted coffee only) is also exported as Blue Mountain coffee.
#2/3 Brazilian "Fancy" grade identification in The United States (New York Board of Trade). No more than 9 defects per 300 gram sample.
#17/18 Bean Size as expressed in screen size of sieves used in measuring. Mesh in mm 6.75-7.14mm beans.
#18 Bean size. Bean Size as expressed in screen size of sieves used in measuring. Beans will sit on a 7.14mm screen mesh.


The more you read, and study about any subject the more educated in that subject you will become. The internet coffee world is populated by many excellent resources. The ones we have chosen to link to here are sites that offer substantial educational opportunities, and with few exceptions do not try to sell you anything.

Gillies does not ask or require other sites to link back to our listings for the privilege of being featured here. Folks are listed because we believe thy offer the coffee student worthwhile information from which you can self-educate, and for no other reason. -dns

All About Coffee (Book)

Known throughout the last 100 years as the “Coffeeman’s Bible” Written by William H. Ukers, founder of Tea & Coffee Trade Journal. It is a vast encyclopedic work, though now interesting more as a historical reference work than as a practical state of the industry text.

Barista Guild

A community empowering baristas and promotes their professional growth.

Barista Magazine

Dedicated to promoting the interests of baristas and their craft. Sponsor of the US Barista Championship.

Bean Scene Magazine

all about coffee news, coffee features, brewing tips, how to's, technology, cafe scene & much more about the coffee scene “down under”. Published in South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Bellisimo Coffee Advisors

For over 25 years, the pioneers of Specialty Coffee education and training

Bird Friendly Coffee / Smithsonian‘s National Zoo

certifies and represents ethical and sustainable coffee business. Bird Friendly® coffee is coffee that comes from family farms in Latin America that provide good, forest-like habitat for birds.

Caffeine Magazine

An award-winning bi-monthly magazine for coffee lovers and a guide to the world of specialty coffee published in London.

Coffee Bean Magazine

A post-modern eclectic e-mag for coffee lovers and those who follow the trade. Published in the UK.

Coffee & Cocoa International


Founded by Former SCAA Director of Science and Technology, and co-creator of the Q-Certification program, for coffee cuppers, the site is one of the coffee industry’s leading information portal on all aspects on coffee science, chemistry and technology.

Coffee Compass

Featuring new retailing concepts, coffee adventures, and the latest art and design of craft coffee equipment & paraphernalia.

Coffee Crew, The

Serving coffee and espresso enthusiasts with tutorials for home offise and professional users of all manner of coffee equipment.

Coffee FAQ

Dedicated to the pursuit of the perfect espresso. Reviews, discussion, and information for the serious espresso aficionado. Hosted by Mark Prince.

Coffee Kids®

Specialty Coffee’s 1st Not-for-profit, founded by SCAA Lifetime Achievement Laureate Bill Fishbein; supporting children and their families in coffee growing lands.

Coffee Magazine

Vibrant, refreshing, Published in Durban, South Africa. And edited by Meklanie Winter, 2 x SA Barista Champion, and brought up in a coffee roasting family, Coffee Magazine makes an important contribution to the pool of available coffee information.

Coffee Magazine, The

honoring the richness of life through coffee from how-tos to travel essays. The Coffee Magazine does not flinch at uncomfortable topics. They have fire in their belly, and that makes it worth exploring life through coffee with them.

Coffee Review

Coffee reviews, espresso ratings, informative articles, and coffee blogs by SCAA Distinguished Author Kenneth Davids and other coffee experts.

Coffee Roasters Guild

A trade guild of the Specialty Coffee Association whose membership are dedicated to the craft of hand roasting quality coffee; founded by Gillies' coffeeman, Donald Schoenholt.

Coffee Science

This blog highlights topics of interest surrounding the world’s third most consumed beverage after water and tea, including finding the best beans and the best beverages, brewing tips, and the numerous health benefits of coffee. A host of coffee aficionados, experts, and personalities share valuable tips, worthy concerns, unusual facts and share and debate the health benefits of coffee here.

Founded in 1999, was the first Web site dedicated to coffee education with comprehensive coverage on coffee, espresso, coffee brewing, coffee agriculture,

Coffee Talk Magazine

A trade journal, for specialty coffee entrepreneurs. Occasional articles are contributed to CoffeeTalk by Gillies' coffeeman Donald Schoenholt.

Crema Magazine

Australia’s café lifestyle magazine, founded in 2002. Originally featuring articles and personality profiles focused on Australian coffee culture the e-zine has expanded to covering coffee culture in other lands as well.

Drift Magazine

An extraordinary twice-yearly publication. Each edition a 160 page, perfect bound book on the coffee culture of one locale. Headquartered in NYC; published by Adam Goldberg, Executive editor Elyssa Goldberg. At $24 per issue (domestic US) this purchase is not for the faint of heart coffee devotee, but it is a unique opportunity for the coffee bibliophile.

Extracted Magazine

Joseph Robertson’s personal coffee e-mag, and related media outlets published for curious and enthusiastic coffee drinkers includes how-to’s stories by and about people who work in coffee. Published in Seattle WA.

Fair Trade Certified Coffee

Certifying agency Fair Trade USA® enabling sustainable development and community empowerment by cultivating a more equitable trade model to the benefit of farmers, industry, consumers and the earth.

Fresh Cup Magazine

Providing specialty coffee and tea retailers with insight into the trends, ideas, products, and people that shape their world.

Global Coffee Report

Works to promote grow and inform the global coffee industry through providing current information and in-depth analysis, from the trade’s most influential voices. Founded in 2011. Published in Melbourne Australia.

Grounds For Health

Supported by the coffee industry, Grounds For Health works to create sustainable and effective cancer screening programs for women in coffee producing lands with a primary focus on Mexico

National Coffee Association

Perfect Daily Grind

Roast Magazine

A periodical in support of the independent specialty roasting community. Gillies' coffeman is proud to serve on the Advisory Board of Roast.

Specialty Coffee Association

The only coffee association bringing together both producers, and consumers of specialty coffee. The Association has an excellent Coffee Resource Center for coffee business related books, and materials on its website. Gillies’ Coffeeman, Donald Schoenholt served as the association’s 1st President (1983).

Sprudge Magazine

Standart Magazine

publication amongst coffee professionals, enthusiasts, artists, writers and print lovers.

Stir Magazine

STiR is a bi-monthly magazine keeping the world’s coffee and tea businesses on top of the latest trends, and abreast of new technological innovations.

Tea & Coffee Trade Journal

The oldest trade organ serving the international coffee & tea industries. Founded by William H. Ukers (author of All About Coffee) in 1901, and still serving the trade. Gillies coffeeman, Donald Schoenholt has been gourmet Specialties Editor at T&CTJ for 40 years.

25 Negative Effects of Caffeine

The piece contains important information for anyone who enjoys caffeine carrying beverages, and is concerned about the effects of too much caffeine. I read this article with interest. The author’s Final Thoughts are very even-handedly written. I wish that the Final Thoughts had appeared at the top of the piece, as that would have been the spoonful of sugar that helps the medicine go down.

Women’s International Coffee Alliance (WICA)

WICA's mission is to empower women in the international coffee community to achieve sustainable livelihoods; and to recognize and promote the participation of women in all aspects of the coffee industry.


Founded as the Coffee Exchange in the City of New York, in 1882, the exchange continues today as part of ICE Futures U.S.

The study of Coffee as a trading commodity is complex, and an economic world in itself, somewhat separated from coffee as a specialty beverage, and at the same time exerting tremendous influence on coffee value throughout the coffee world as almost all specialty coffees rely on the New York “C” contract; the benchmark from which they obtain their own higher value. Coffee is traded in London Euronext.liffe. (Robusta) , Singapore Commodity Exchange (Robusta), Sao Paulo, Futures Exchange, BM&F (Arabica), and New York ICE Futures U.S. Coffee futures are standardized, exchange-traded contracts in which the contract buyer agrees to take delivery, from the seller, a specific quantity of coffee at a predetermined price on a future delivery date.

In New York coffee is traded in lots of 37,500 LB. ICE Coffee “C” Contract Specifications can be found here: The ICE Futures U.S. , Inc. Coffee “C” Rules make for fascinating reading covering topics from product standards to substitution, damage, default, and arbitration procedures. You can find them here: For a more sophisticated ideas on the use of futures trading visit


The following is a representation of activity on the ICENY Market Arabica Coffee “C” Contract. Transactions are delayed 10 minutes. The information is offered on this site solely, and only as a general indication of current commodity Arabica values to give the visitor an indication of the wider coffee economic universe beyond specialty coffee.

Coming Soon...


A licensed electrician and a licensed plumber should prepare the site for installation of coffee equipment.


  • Customer is responsible to provide:
    • A dedicated circuit and circuit breaker for each coffee machine.
    • Code appropriate wiring for American manufactured 220v machines, 4-wire twist-lock receptacle, line-cord and twist-lock mating plug to match within 36” of machine, and within easy reach of equipment technician and above counter level. see diagrams below.


  • Customer is responsible to provide:
    • Fresh cold water PSI to meet mfg required model specific Specifications.
    • In-coming cold water line within 24” of machine inlet valve, and above counter level
    • Each incoming waterline must be provided with a shut off valve within 24” of the machine inlet valve and above counter level.
    • Back-flow prevention device acceptable to local health / building authorities where required.
    • Model specific machine inlet fitting: check model Specifications for size of inlet fitting to be supplied.
    • Installing technician must be left with a ½” “female” NPT Fitting.

Below is an image of typical back-flow prevention devices

Coffee Merchandising Ideas

  • Offer coffee to-go
  • Use strong point-of-sale material and signage to attract attention to your coffee.
  • Offer large size cups (up to 20 OZ) at a great price. It will attract the larger sale, and keep fresh coffee moving out the door by charging less per ounce for larger sizes.
  • Offer creative coffee beverages made from your own recipes.
  • Create specials that follow calendar occassions. (everyone knows that Valentine’s day is in February, but what about a Mexican coffee festival for Cinco de Mayo).

Your Crew is Your Best Merchandising Tool

  • Staff participation is the key to promotions that work for your business. Refreshed apron designs, hats, t-shirts and other wearables can stimulate staff enthusism.
  • Employee tastings help your crew to become comfortable with the tastes of every item on the coffee menu, and at the same time gives them a chance to become a community of fellow workers
  • Work on having an upbeat and friendly (not artificially overfriendly) attitude among your crew. It will improve sales. Being hip may be cool, but unless Steve McQueen is a member of your crew the independent attitude of cool is rarely helpful to making a sale. Sales are fostered by a well mannered, warm and friendly, attitude.
  • Recipes or blends of the week at special price points can develop your business, particularly if professional signage and energized baristas are supporting the items with strong graphics and suggestive chatter.

Lean Into Merchandising

  • Signs, show cards, menu boards, videos, and point-of-purchase materials telling folks about your products help give your goods a special cache.
  • Always use signature names on blends and beverages to make your goods stand out. (Tanzanian Pearls sounds much better than Tanzanian Peaberry). Make an extra effort to check spelling; always Colombia, never Columbia.
  • Promote coffee as a time of day event remembering that "coffee jump start" is a stronger merchandise forward phrase than "breakfast coffee."
  • Merchandising as an Integrated Idea

    • Using eye appealing tableware and napkins improves the perceived taste of the products served from them, and establishes your bone fides as a place a cut above the competition.
    • A garnish on a beverage adds something unexpected and special to for your customer to enjoy. In the 80s an espresso bar of my acquaintance served a shot with Jelly Belly brand jelly beans on the side and named it after the jelly bean loving president of the United States, Espresso Ron Reagan. A pinch of cocoa powder, a cinnamon stick, or a mint leaf do wonders for the customers’ ideas related to the quality level of your shop.
    • If you are pulling shots and customizing beverages, rather than using a superautomatic espresso machine do it with a flourish, and where the customer (and anyone else nearby) can see it. Showmanship makes the coffee more enticing, and sells others on the idea. When you hear,"I'll have what he’s having," in the shop, you'll know you are on a successful path.